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Published on:Jan/2016
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2016; 50(2s):S39-S44
Pharmaceutical Research | doi:10.5530/ijper.50.2.16

Occurrence of the Triple Whammy in an Outpatient Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital


Authors and affiliation (s):

Hanis Hanum Zulkifly1*, Haifak Mat Zaid1, Yaman Walid Kassab2, Long Chiau Ming1, Nahlah Elkudssiah Ismail3,4, Shazwani Shaharuddin1*

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, MALAYSIA.

2Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Selangor, MALAYSIA.

3Clinical Pharmaceutics Research Group (CPRG), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA.

4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lincoln University College, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.

Abstract:

Background: The combination of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) and diuretics, among patients is common. The combination of these drugs can lead to renal disease and kidney failure over a long term use. Objectives: To identify the occurrence of the concomitant prescriptionof NSAIDs, ACEIsand diuretics, usually referred to as triple whammy, received by out-patients at a Malaysian tertiary hospital. It also aimed to identify the occurrence of triple whammy among the population of the elderly. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary care hospital, situated in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The patients’ prescriptions with NSAIDs, ACEIs and diuretics, from the outpatient pharmacy department were reviewed and recorded. The association between the prescriptions with age was investigated using the chi-square test. A value of P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 424 prescriptions (56.1% male) were included in this study. The findings showed that 422 prescriptions were with one or more of NSAIDs, ACEIs and diuretic, and only 2 prescriptions were with all three drugs. Majority of the prescriptions (40.1%) were with the combination of ACEIs and diuretics. A combination of ACEI and diuretics were mainly (21.7%) prescribed to patients above 65 years of age, albeit, it is statistically not significant. Conclusion: The occurrence of triple whammy at a tertiary hospital during the period of data collection is low. This is indeed a good predictor of safe prescribing of drugs among physicians, as concomitant use of these three medications may impair renal function, especially in the elderly and dehydrated patients.

Key words: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Diuretics, Kidney failure, Renal impairment.

 

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The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
(Registered under Registration of Societies Act XXI of 1860 No. 122 of 1966-1967, Lucknow)

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.

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