Home | Articles
Published on:July 2017
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2017; 51(4):571-579
Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijper.51.4.86

Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) Nanospheres Improved the Oral Delivery of Candesartan Cilexetil

Authors and affiliation (s):

Anroop B Nair1*, Bandar E Al-Dhubiab1, Jigar Shah2, Mahesh Attimarad1, Sree Harsha1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA.

2Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad - 382481, Gujarat, INDIA.


Purpose: Certain physicochemical characteristics of Candesartan Cilexetil (CC) lead to incomplete oral absorption and poor clinical efficacy. This study assessed the prospect of the use of drug-embedded nanospheres to augment the oral bioavailability of CC. Methods: Baseline studies were conducted to measure the solubility of CC in the polymer. Drug encapsulated poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. Five different formulations (C1-C5) were prepared for the varying amount of CC (30-50 mg). Evaluation was carried out for nanospheres characters, drug dissolution and release kinetics. Pharmacokinetics parameters were evaluated in rat model. Results: Solubility of drug in polymer was ~20 mg/100 mg of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). Values of particle size (200-400 nm), zeta potential (~-25 to -27 mV) and polydispersity index (0.17 to 0.21) were optimal for oral absorption. Morphological studies suggest that the prepared nanospheres were spherical in shape with no aggregation. The nanospheres exhibited biphasic release of CC with an initial burst effect (~50% in 4 h), while it was low and incomplete (~54% in 14 h) with pure drug. Furthermore, drug release from nanospheres appeared to indicate a Korsmeyer–Peppas model (r2=0.981), and diffusion of the drug molecules was by anomalous transport (n=0.74). Greater and rapid absorption of CC was observed from the nanospheres with significantly higher Cmax (599.92 ± 139.36 ng/ml; P<0.0005) and AUC0-∞ (~3 folds; P<0.0001) relative to the pure drug (control). Conclusion: These results suggested that CC loaded nanospheres seems to be a suitable alternative to improve the oral bioavailability and could be further assessed for clinical use.

Key words: Nanospheres, Release, Polymer, Evaluation, in vivo, Bioavailability.



Impact Factor

IJPER - An Official Publication of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India is pleased to announce continued growth in the 2019 Release of Journal Citation Reports (source: 2018 Web of Science Data).


Impact Factor® as reported in the 2018 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate Analytics, 2019): 0.425

User login

The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
(Registered under Registration of Societies Act XXI of 1860 No. 122 of 1966-1967, Lucknow)

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.


IJPER uses reference linking service using Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) by Crossref. Articles from the year 2013 are being assigned DOIs for its permanent URLs