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Published on:September 2019
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2019; 53(4):675-681
Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijper.53.4.130

Role of Testosterone in Swimming Exercise-Induced Analgesia in Rats

Authors and affiliation (s):

Dheeraj Kumar Sharma1,*, Niraj Kumar Singh2, Ahsas Goyal2, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta2, Harlokesh Narayan Yadav3
1SGT College of Pharmacy, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, INDIA.
2Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.
3All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Gautam Nagar, Ansari Nagar East, New Delhi, INDIA.


Objective: “Feel good effect” of exercise is well known. Activation of pain inhibitory mechanisms after exercise is also well documented. Swimming is considered as a beneficial exercise as well as health-promoting sport. The significance of testosterone in swimming exercise-induced analgesia is yet to be understood. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the significance of testosterone in swimming exercise-induced analgesia. Materials and Methods: The basal tail flick latencies of all animals were recorded by using tail flick analgesiometer. In order to observe the effect of testosterone on swimming exercise-induced analgesia, testicles of animals of some groups were surgically removed. Then animals were subjected to swimming sessions of different patterns. After swimming, tail flick latencies were measured. Results: Swimming sessions resulted in increase in pain thresholds of all animals. Castration negatively affected the degree of analgesia achieved in rats. However, daily treatment of testosterone propionate (500μg/kg, s.c.) improved swim-induced analgesia in castrated rats. Moreover, daily administration of naloxone hydrochloride (1mg/kg, i.p.) fifteen min prior to swimming suppressed testosterone therapy resulted in an increase in swim-induced analgesia in castrated animals. Conclusion: We concluded that testosterone plays a significant role in swimming exercise-induced analgesia in male Wistar albino rats and this positive effect of testosterone on pain threshold might be mediated through its probable effect on the endogenous opioid system.

Key words: Castration, Swimming exercise, Pain threshold, Testosterone, Endogenous opioids.



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The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
(Registered under Registration of Societies Act XXI of 1860 No. 122 of 1966-1967, Lucknow)

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.


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